Building Resilience: Expanding the Concept of Sustainability

Can traditional and new wood building systems meet evolving design objectives?
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This test is no longer available for credit


As resilience becomes a more entrenched objective for structures and communities, it is useful to consider the advantages of building materials and systems. As this course illustrates, traditional wood framing, mass timber, and other wood systems have many strengths that make them worthy of consideration from a resilience perspective.

End Notes

12015 National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction, American Wood Council,

2National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council

3Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10), American Society of Civil Engineers/ Structural Engineering Institute

4The January 17, 1994 Northridge, CA Earthquake An EQE Summary Report, March 1994,

5Construction and Experimental Seismic Performance of a Full-Scale Six-story Light-frame Wood Building, J.W. Van de Lindt, Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama, S. Pei, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Dakota State University, S.E. Pryor, Simpson Strong-Tie, 2011

6U.S. CLT Handbook, FPInnovations, 2013; co-published by the USDA Forest Service and Binational Softwood Lumber Council

7Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) CLT Planning Project

82015 NDS, Section

9Summary Report of Building Performance, 2004 Hurricane Season, FEMA 490, 2005,

10Mitigation Assessment Team Report – Spring 2011 Tornadoes: April 25-28 and May 22 (2012), FEMA P-908,, an open, not-for-profit network of urban planners, architects, designers, engineers and landscape architects (no longer updated)

121Survey on Actual Service Lives for North American Buildings, FPInnovations, Proceedings, 10th International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components, 2005

13Resilient by Design, Erik Kneer, SE, LEED AP BD+C, Greenbuild, October 24, 2014

14Life Cycle Environmental Performance of Renewable Building Materials in the Context of Residential Construction, Phase 1 (2005) and Phase II (2010), Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials; Wooden building products in comparative LCA: A literature review, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, F. Werner, K. Richter, 2007

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Originally published in Architectural Record
Originally published in June 2016